Festschrift für Juliane House zum 60. Prof. Jenkins is one of the most prominent figures in ELF scholarship, and has published numerous books and articles on the topic. [56], Use of the English language for international communication, Hülmbauer, Cornelia et al. While ELF communication is highly variable, there are features which have been identified as regularly (although not always) occurring. ... What is new about ELF, however, is the extent of its reach," (Jenkins 2013).Â. Galloway, Nicola & Rose, Heath (2015). Klimpfinger, Theresa. This concept of linguistic imperialism has been developed and heavily used by Robert Phillipson. Nowadays, English is a common lingua franca across the sphere because it is used for the purpose of communication globally. English in European integration and globalization.” World Englishes 27: 2, 250-267. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language) 2(1), 92–119. ELF is used globally in many ways, and this includes important matters of politics and diplomacy. 2005. “English as a global language – What do future teachers have to say?” In Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke (eds.). MacKenzie, Ian. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. The discussion goes on to show that the future advance of English will depend heavily on the motives … For people to adapt to certain situations, learning English has become a necessity. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. 2001. “Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11: 2, 133-158. In Mauranen, Anna and Ranta, Elina (eds.). Because of the use of English as a lingua franca in international trade and intercultural communication, native speakers of English are outnumbered by non-native speakers, which is a situation that is quite atypical for western European languages. ... One is the (traditional) idea that English is a lingua franca for a non-native speaker constituency which should pursue knowledge of the language as if it were a foreign language. 2001. “Bringing Europe's lingua franca into the classroom.” The Guardian Weekly 19 April 2001. This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 21:31. Applying nonverbal cues was seen as being of importance to encourage simulated patients to express concerns, because silence may be interpreted as a sign of potential problems. Hülmbauer, Cornelia et al. : from Italian, literally ‘Frankish tongue’. Paradowski, Michał B. Zeiss, Nadine. ELF is "defined functionally by its use in intercultural communication rather than formally by its reference to native-speaker norms" whereas English as a second or foreign language 2015. English as a Lingua Franca in Europe Today English is widely regarded as the most widespread lingua franca in the world and this is also true in Europe: English has become an intrinsic part of the European linguistic landscape and it constitutes an [Print version of Breiteneder 2005.] The other line of criticism argues that concepts such as ELF provide a useful (terminological) veneer for continued (linguistic) domination by English-speaking countries through their political, educational, and cultural institutions. Maybe you could create some kind of other language using bits of both languages. Cogo, Alessia and Dewey, Martin. The approach to ELF should be more non-essentialist according to Sewell who points out that ELF does not involve a set of features or skills that distinguishes it from languages in general, as all language usage is varied. [14] Based on the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE) and additional research, the following features of ELF lexicogrammar have been identified:[14] For example, there are claims that variationist discourses have entered into some ELF accounts, creating too much emphasis on accounting for language forms and authenticating them numerically, rather than considering all the contextual factors and variations that constitute communicative practices across ELF settings. "Whether ELF should be called a variety of English at all is an open question, and one which cannot be answered as long as we do not have any good descriptions of it. Another example is the case of Juliane House,[51] a German scholar who explains in her article "English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism?" [27] Studies of Medical English as a Lingua Franca (MELF)[28] provide opportunities to investigate ELF interactions where communicative precision is critical, and the migration of healthcare practitioners across international borders (a phenomenon consistent with the "deterritorialisation" of ELF generally),[29] have created conditions where MELF interactions are increasingly commonplace. English, he suggests, will be the last lingua franca. Synergies Europe 3, 25-36. p.27, Vienna Oxford International Corpus of English [VOICE]: FAQ. (eds.) [11] In other words, communicative efficiency (i.e. 2005. “Exploring the third space. Paradowski, Michał B. Regarding the criticism of ELF and variety building, some claim that ELF research has inherited the legacies of traditional linguistics, which contain some obstacles when considering language use in context. ELF is "defined functionally by its use in intercultural communication rather than formally by its reference to native-speaker norms"[3] whereas English as a second or foreign language aims at meeting native speaker norms and gives prominence to native speaker cultural aspects. The distinctiveness of ELF comes from the rapid pace of language evolution and innovation, enhanced in the ELF context due to the linguistic and cultural diversity of English speakers, where understanding is more important than using Standard features. 2001. “English for globalization or for the world’s people?”. Culture in lingua franca conversation.” In: Knapp, Karlfried; Meierkord, Christiane (eds.). Sowden argues that ELF researchers encourage ELF speakers to use specific varieties of English over others, an argument that Cogo refutes by stating that researchers only use empirical data to show what happens in ELF interactions, and never to tell speakers what to use. Newcastle upton Tine: Cambridge Scholars. Prescriptivists (generally non-linguists) tend to dismiss ELF as a kind of foreigner talk or what has been disparagingly called BSE—"bad simple English." [12] As a consequence, ELF interactions are very often hybrid. Lingua franca definition: A lingua franca is a language or way of communicating which is used between people who do... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Is it a lingua franca or common language only for non-native speakers that speak it as a foreign language or for those that use it in multicultural settings? British linguist Jennifer Jenkins points out that ELF is not a new phenomenon. Lingua franca 1. In ELF interactions, intelligibility is key, which may not necessitate an advantage for native speakers (see above). 2013. Here, the speaker's ability to move away from the traditional speech patterns of the native varieties is argued to be an important part of ELF research. (There may be native speakers present, but they would be in the minority.) Changing attitudes in an inter-connected world. 2003. “A concept of international English and related issues: From ‘Real English’ to ‘Realistic English’?” In: Council of Europe. Pitzl, Marie-Luise. her relation to English after World War II. Discover grammar tips, writing help, and fun English language facts. [10] But once a language is appropriated by new communities, it is then adapted to their specific needs. See lingua franca in the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary. English is used as a lingua franca among many airline pilots. Meierkord, Christiane. An important issue when discussing ELF is the notion of speakers of ELF being active language users in their own right, who do not need to adhere to native speaker norms but use ELF to meet their communicative needs. 2005. “English as a global language – What do future teachers have to say?” In *Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke (eds.). Jenkins, Jennifer; Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2002. “From chaos to the smallest common denominator. It should be made clear, moreover, that my own position here is that a lingua franca must be inclusive as opposed to exclusive. Galloway, Nicola & Rose, Heath. It will be argued that the role of English in Asia has now extended beyond operating at intranational level, as evidenced by the existence of established varieties of … Klimpfinger, Theresa. 2002. “Native speaker norms and international English: a classroom view.” ELT Journal 56, 240-249. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is English when it is used by non-native speakers to communicate with native speakers. Grau, Maike. English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language "as a global means of inter-community communication" (Seidlhofer 2016: 20) and can be understood as "any use of English among speakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicative medium of choice and often the only option " (Seidlhofer 2011: 7). Spichtinger, Daniel. 8: 115-127. . He concludes that ELF will not replace Anglo-Saxon native-speaker models in the near future as there are too many constraints linked to ELF. Arbingdon, UK: Routledge. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Müller. From pragmatic motives to lexico-grammatical innovation.” Nordic Journal of English Studies. Björkman, Beyza. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 261-274. Most importantly, proponents of this view reject the idea that emerging insights into how English is used as a lingua franca can provide useful input with regard to the aims and methods of English language teaching. (eds.). Dewey defends ELF by emphasising the importance of variability and the dynamic nature of ELF. Rather, these forms do not seem to compromise effective communication within an ELF setting when they do occur. He claims that it is counterproductive to polarise ELF and non-ELF and native and non-native speakers, as there is great diversity in all areas of English language usage. 2006. “In and on their own terms. The Globalisation of English and the English Language Classroom. However, these features are by no means invariant or “obligatory”. In contrast, English as Lingua Franca users tend to focus on effective communication with speakers of other linguistic backgrounds. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. 1996. “Review Article: Ironising the myth of Linguicism.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Negotiating culture in English as a lingua franca.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Vienna. Check pronunciation: lingua franca. If English is indeed a lingua franca, it should be possible to describe it as such without prejudice. [50] Although Phillipson suggests this idea, there are some controversial facts[which?] London: Routledge, 47-50. Barbara Seidlhofer, http://www.univie.ac.at/voice/page/abstracts/klimpfinger_2005.pdf, http://anglistik.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dep_anglist/weitere_Uploads/Views/Views_0702.pdf, http://www.novitasroyal.org/paradowski.pdf, "Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca", "Listening instruction and patient safety: Exploring medical English as a lingua franca (MELF) for nursing education", http://biblioteca.uqroo.mx/hemeroteca/elt_journal/2002/julio/560240.pdf, http://zif.spz.tu-darmstadt.de/jg-08-2-3/docs/Seidlhofer_Widdowson.pdf, http://www.univie.ac.at/voice/page/abstracts/breiteneder_2005.pdf, "English as a lingua franca: ontology and ideology", "The distinctiveness of English as a Lingua Franca", http://www.southampton.ac.uk/cge/working_papers/, First steps in exploring computer-mediated English as a lingua franca, http://www.univie.ac.at/Anglistik/Views_0702.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20110721023252/http://ressources-cla.univ-fcomte.fr/gerflint/Europe3/hulmbauer.pdf, https://www.theguardian.com/education/2001/apr/19/languages.highereducation1, https://web.archive.org/web/20110706090020/http://anglistik.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dep_anglist/weitere_Uploads/Views/Views_0702.pdf, https://books.google.com/books?id=KDi30N8c2kgC&pg=PA263&lpg=PA263#v=onepage&f=false, https://books.google.com/books?id=qPhULmMmqJMC&printsec=frontcover&source=bn#v=onepage&f=false, https://www.academia.edu/3318842/Barbara_Seidlhofer_Understanding_English_as_a_Lingua_Franca_A_Complete_Introduction_to_the_Theoretical_Nature_and_Practical_Implications_of_English_used_as_a_Lingua_Franca_Review_article_, http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/source/seidlhoferen.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20110719100302/http://zif.spz.tu-darmstadt.de/jg-08-2-3/docs/Seidlhofer_Widdowson.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20110722230455/http://biblioteca.uqroo.mx/hemeroteca/elt_journal/2002/julio/560240.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=English_as_a_lingua_franca&oldid=990851113, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from October 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, shift in the use of articles (including some preference for zero articles) as in, treating ‘who’ and ‘which’ as interchangeable relative pronouns, as in, shift of patterns of preposition use, for example, preference for bare and/or full infinitive over the use of gerunds, as in, extension to the collocational field of words with high semantic generality, for example, exploited redundancy, such as ellipsis of objects/complements of transitive verbs as in "I wanted to go with..." or "You can borrow...'". English as a lingua franca in Europe. English as a Lingua Franca: Theorizing and Teaching English. Pennycook, A. The role of code-switching in English as a lingua franca.” Views 16: 2, 36-61. The Spread of English and its Appropriation. Mortensen, J. Powered by JustWatch. Besides, English Language operates as the lingua franca of this new millennium. The relationship between lexicogrammatical correctness and communicative effectiveness in English as a lingua franca.” Views 16: 2, 3-36. This could also be the reason why English has become the world’s lingua franca since it is already widely used in various countries around the globe. As far as Marko Modiano is concerned, there are two ways to approach deciding who English is a lingua franca for. MacKenzie, Ian. ELF is also used on a much smaller scale. 2000. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) is a term used to describe the use of English as a common language for communication between speakers whose first language is not English. Language Policy Division. Übersetzen, Interkulturelle Kommunikation, Spracherwerb und Sprachvermittlung—das Leben mit mehreren Sprachen“. 2008 "Introducing English as a lingua franca (ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication." Lingua franca communication. Definition and Examples of a Lingua Franca, Foreign Language Requirement for College Admissions, Key Events in the History of the English Language, New Englishes: Adapting the Language to Meet New Needs, The "Inner Circle" of the English Language, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. The Globalisation of English and the English language classroom. Other results All matches. 2009. Several attitude studies on the topic of ELF have already been conducted. This … 2 What is a lingua franca? Timmis, Ivor. 2008, Apr. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Vienna. Alessia Cogo[44] challenged Sowden's critical paper on ELF in 2012 by stating that his arguments were based on outdated research and a confusion between the terms World Englishes (WE) and ELF. 2006. Seidlhofer, Barbara. The world has turned into an interconnected global system, which requires a shared means of communication. 17:6, 485-596. The way English is used as a lingua franca is heavily dependent on the specific situation of use. English as a lingua franca in the international University: The Politics of Academic English Language Policy. Apples – Journal of Applied Linguistics Series 3 (1), 25-49. : Peter Lang, 163-194. English, she says, "has served as a lingua franca in the past, and continues to do so nowadays, in many of the countries that were colonized by the British from the late sixteenth century on (often known collectively as the Outer Circle following Kachru 1985), such as India and Singapore. Studies and findings. It also creates a focus on what is different rather than what is there, which moves from a descriptive agenda to a pragmatic (and, arguably, problematic) one. Spoken lingua franca English at a technical university in Sweden.” English Today 94 (2), 35-41. Understanding English as a Lingua Franca: A Complete Introduction to the Theoretical Nature and Practical Implications of English used as a Lingua Franca. With English acting as an international language, it enables people who do not share a common native language to interact. A study in cross-cultural understanding. Sowden claims that Standard English, especially British English, has a colonial baggage that still affects the status of English in post-colonial countries and it is this negative value that has led ELF researchers to an attempt to describe and posit a neutralized version of English and to make it a universal one that belongs to every speaker, both native and second language speakers.
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